The Online Presence Of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in East, South, and South East Asia

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Author :

Puspita Ayu Permatasari

Master management of world heritage and tourism candidate at University of Paris 1, Panthéon sorbonne

LPDP Awardee Batch – 16

The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, UNESCO, is a particular UN agency that encourages international peace and human rights by promoting and enhancing collaboration among nations through education, science and culture preservation. One of its main missions concerns the protection and preservation of World Heritage Sites, which is stipulated in the Convention on the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage, signed in Paris November 16th, 1972.

Such Convention stresses the protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage of outstanding universal value. UNESCO, together with the member states, is committed to implementing the World Heritage Convention in order to identify, preserve and communicate World Heritage Sites, especially for the next generations.

World Heritage Sites (WHSs) consist of three major categories. Natural heritage, whose outstanding universal values emphasize superlative natural phenomena consisting of physical, geological and biological formations with exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance. Cultural heritage signifies the exceptional human masterpieces reflected on the buildings, monuments, archeological sites, ideas, beliefs and cultural traditions. Mixed heritage is a combination between natural phenomenon and the cultural values represented in a heritage site.

In order to reinforce the support and preservation missions of world heritage sites, the UNESCO chair in ICT to develop and promote sustainable tourism in World Heritage Sites presents a research on the online presence of UNESCO sites located in the 19 member countries of World Heritage Convention within the scope of South, East, and South East Asia regions. The main objectives of this research are (i) to provide a brief overview on WHSs’ online presence; (ii) to depict their representation on specific social media systems; and (iii) to map the mobile apps devoted to them.

To read the full with paper, please click  here

Time for Bank Indonesia to End High Interest Rate

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Author :

Zenathan Adnin

PhD Candidate at Paris School of Economics, Sorbonne

LPDP Awardee Batch -34

The global economy is now in the period of super accommodative monetary policy to build up momentum in growth and to tackle low inflation caused by low commodity price. Although last year the US Fed, end the Quantitative Easing (QE) program and hike the interest rate from 0.25% to 0.5%, the other advanced economy remain maintain their QE and even introduce negative policy rate.

In the recent event, Bank of Japan surprisingly introduce negative benchmark rate of -0.1% in the end of January. The sole purpose of this negative rate is to push the commercial bank to channelling their fund to real sector through lending and furthermore to stimulate the economic growth. With core inflation in December is just at 0.1% -far below 2% target, and Japan’s economy is forecast to grow only 1.7% this year, imposing negative rate seems to be a good idea.

Japan is not the only country implementing the policy. Denmark, Switzerland, and Sweden has introduce it first, before followed by the European Central Bank that will do everything to make the EU economy rebound in the aftermath of Eurozone economic crisis. The impact could be vary though, while negative interest rate can help Eurozone to get out from financial crisis, the impact for Japan is unlikely to be strong since there are simply no opportunity for new investments. Nevertheless, most analyst agree that the ultra-low policy rate, even negative, could have an impact to generate investment and consumption since the commercial banks were forced to make more loans rather to keep their money idle in central bank’s vault.